wiki:TracStandalone

Version 5 (modified by trac, 6 years ago) (diff)

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Tracd

Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server. In most cases it's easier to setup and runs faster than the CGI script.

Pros

  • Fewer dependencies: You don't need to install apache or any other web-server.
  • Fast: Should be almost as fast as the mod_python version (and much faster than the CGI).
  • Automatic reloading: For development, Tracd can be used in auto_reload mode, which will automatically restart the server whenever you make a change to the code (in Trac itself or in a plugin).

Cons

Usage examples

A single project on port 8080. (http://localhost:8080/)

 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project

Stricly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than localhost only. To truly limit it use --hostname option.

 $ tracd --hostname=localhost -p 8080 /path/to/project

With more than one project. (http://localhost:8080/project1/ and http://localhost:8080/project2/)

 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2

You can't have the last portion of the path identical between the projects since Trac uses that name to keep the URLs of the different projects unique. So if you use /project1/path/to and /project2/path/to, you will only see the second project.

An alternative way to serve multiple projects is to specify a parent directory in which each subdirectory is a Trac project, using the -e option. The example above could be rewritten:

 $ tracd -p 8080 -e /path/to

To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use CTRL-BREAK -- using CTRL-C will leave a Python process running in the background.

Installing as a Windows Service

To install as a Windows service, get the SRVANY utility and run:

 C:\path\to\instsrv.exe tracd C:\path\to\srvany.exe
 reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters /v Application /d "\"C:\path\to\python.exe\" \"C:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py\" <your tracd parameters>"
 net start tracd

DO NOT use tracd.exe. Instead register python.exe directly with tracd-script.py as a parameter. If you use tracd.exe, it will spawn the python process without SRVANY's knowledge. This python process will survive a net stop tracd.

If you want tracd to start automatically when you boot Windows, do:

 sc config tracd start= auto

The spacing here is important.

Using Authentication

Using tracd with Apache .htpasswd files:

To create a .htpasswd file using htpasswd:

sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username

then for additional users:

sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2

then for starting the tracd:

tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth=environmentname,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,/fullpath/environmentname /fullpath/environmentname

Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. The default is to use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace --auth with --basic-auth in the examples below. (You must still specify a dialogic "realm", which can be an empty string by trailing the BASICAUTH with a comma.)

Support for Basic authentication was added in version 0.9.

The general format for using authentication is:

 $ tracd -p port --auth=base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm project_path

where:

  • base_project_dir is the base directory of the project; note: this doesn't refer to the project name, and it is case-sensitive even for windows environments
  • password_file_path path of the password file
  • realm realm
  • project_path path of the project

Example:

 $ tracd -p 8080 \
   --auth=project1,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com /path/to/project1

Of course, the digest file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:

 $ tracd -p 8080 \
   --auth=project1,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com \
   --auth=project2,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com \
   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2

Another way to share the digest file is to specify "*" for the project name:

 $ tracd -p 8080 \
   --auth="*",/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com \
   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2

If using the -s parameter for serving a Trac environment from the root of a domain, one must use * for the project name

How to set up an htdigest password file

If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read this page from the Apache manual to get precise instructions. You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create. For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like users.htdigest it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the trac.ini file.

Note that you can start tracd without the --auth argument, but if you click on the Login link you will get an error.

Generating Passwords Without Apache

If you don't have Apache available, you can use this simple Python script to generate your passwords:

from optparse import OptionParser
# The md5 module is deprecated in Python 2.5
try:
    from hashlib import md5
except ImportError:
    from md5 import md5
realm = 'trac'

# build the options
usage = "usage: %prog [options]"
parser = OptionParser(usage=usage)
parser.add_option("-u", "--username",action="store", dest="username", type = "string",
                  help="the username for whom to generate a password")
parser.add_option("-p", "--password",action="store", dest="password", type = "string",
                  help="the password to use")
parser.add_option("-r", "--realm",action="store", dest="realm", type = "string",
                  help="the realm in which to create the digest")
(options, args) = parser.parse_args()

# check options
if (options.username is None) or (options.password is None):
   parser.error("You must supply both the username and password")
if (options.realm is not None):
   realm = options.realm
   
# Generate the string to enter into the htdigest file
kd = lambda x: md5(':'.join(x)).hexdigest()
print ':'.join((options.username, realm, kd([options.username, realm, options.password])))

Note: If you use the above script you must use the --auth option to tracd, not --basic-auth, and you must set the realm in the --auth value to 'trac' (without the quotes). Example usage (assuming you saved the script as trac-digest.py):

python trac-digest.py -u username -p password >> c:\digest.txt
tracd --port 8000 --auth=proj_name,c:\digest.txt,trac c:\path\to\proj_name

Note: If you would like to use --basic-auth you need to use htpasswd tool from apache server to generate .htpasswd file. The remaining part is similar but make sure to use empty realm (i.e. coma after path). When using on Windows make sure to use -m option for it (did not tested it on *nix, so not sure if that is the case there). If you do not have Apache, htpasswd.py may help. (Note that it requires a crypt or fcrypt module; see the source comments for details.)

It is possible to use md5sum utility to generate digest-password file using such method:

 $ printf "${user}:trac:${password}" | md5sum - >>user.htdigest

and manually delete " -" from the end and add "${user}:trac:" to the start of line from 'to-file'.

Tips

Serving static content

If tracd is the only webserver used for the project, it can also be used to distribute static content (tarballs, Doxygen documentation, etc.)

This static content should be put in the $TRAC_ENV/htdocs folder, and is accessed by URLs like <project_URL>/chrome/site/....

Example: given a $TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz file, the corresponding relative URL would be /<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz, which in turn can be written using the relative link syntax in the Wiki: [/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]

The development version of Trac supports a new htdocs: TracLinks syntax for the above. With this, the example link above can be written simply htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz.

Using apache rewrite rules

In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind apache, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the [trac] use_base_url_for_redirect to true can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of [trac] base_url for doing the redirects.

Serving a different base path than /

Tracd supports serving projects with different base urls than /<project>. The parameter name to change this is

 $ tracd --base-path=/some/path

See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide, Running tracd.exe as a Windows service