Changes between Version 6 and Version 7 of TracStandalone


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Timestamp:
2013-05-22T09:31:17+02:00 (15 months ago)
Author:
trac
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  • TracStandalone

    v6 v7  
    11= Tracd = 
    22 
    3 Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server. In most cases it's easier to setup and runs faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI script]. 
     3Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server. 
     4It can be used in a variety of situations, from a test or development server to a multiprocess setup behind another web server used as a load balancer. 
    45 
    56== Pros == 
    67 
    78 * Fewer dependencies: You don't need to install apache or any other web-server. 
    8  * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]). 
     9 * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]), even more so since version 0.12 where the HTTP/1.1 version of the protocol is enabled by default 
    910 * Automatic reloading: For development, Tracd can be used in ''auto_reload'' mode, which will automatically restart the server whenever you make a change to the code (in Trac itself or in a plugin). 
    10   * Options for tracd: `-r, --auto-reload` 
    1111 
    1212== Cons == 
    1313 
    14  * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache HTTPD. 
     14 * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache httpd. 
    1515 * No native HTTPS support: [http://www.rickk.com/sslwrap/ sslwrap] can be used instead, 
    1616   or [http://trac.edgewall.org/wiki/STunnelTracd stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy. 
     
    4343== Installing as a Windows Service == 
    4444 
     45=== Option 1 === 
    4546To install as a Windows service, get the [http://www.google.com/search?q=srvany.exe SRVANY] utility and run: 
    4647{{{ 
     
    5960The spacing here is important. 
    6061 
     62{{{#!div 
     63Once the service is installed, it might be simpler to run the Registry Editor rather than use the `reg add` command documented above.  Navigate to:[[BR]] 
     64`HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters` 
     65 
     66Three (string) parameters are provided: 
     67||!AppDirectory ||C:\Python26\ || 
     68||Application ||python.exe || 
     69||!AppParameters ||scripts\tracd-script.py -p 8080 ... || 
     70 
     71Note that, if the !AppDirectory is set as above, the paths of the executable ''and'' of the script name and parameter values are relative to the directory.  This makes updating Python a little simpler because the change can be limited, here, to a single point. 
     72(This is true for the path to the .htpasswd file, as well, despite the documentation calling out the /full/path/to/htpasswd; however, you may not wish to store that file under the Python directory.) 
     73}}} 
     74 
     75For Windows 7 User, srvany.exe may not be an option, so you can use [http://www.google.com/search?q=winserv.exe WINSERV] utility and run: 
     76{{{ 
     77"C:\path\to\winserv.exe" install tracd -displayname "tracd" -start auto "C:\path\to\python.exe" c:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py <your tracd parameters>" 
     78 
     79net start tracd 
     80}}} 
     81 
     82=== Option 2 === 
     83 
     84Use [http://trac-hacks.org/wiki/WindowsServiceScript WindowsServiceScript], available at [http://trac-hacks.org/ Trac Hacks]. Installs, removes, starts, stops, etc. your Trac service. 
     85 
     86=== Option 3 === 
     87 
     88also cygwin's cygrunsrv.exe can be used: 
     89{{{ 
     90$ cygrunsrv --install tracd --path /cygdrive/c/Python27/Scripts/tracd.exe --args '--port 8000 --env-parent-dir E:\IssueTrackers\Trac\Projects' 
     91$ net start tracd 
     92}}} 
     93 
    6194== Using Authentication == 
    6295 
    63 Using tracd with Apache .htpasswd files: 
    64  
    65 To create a .htpasswd file using htpasswd: 
    66  
     96Tracd allows you to run Trac without the need for Apache, but you can take advantage of Apache's password tools (htpasswd and htdigest) to easily create a password file in the proper format for tracd to use in authentication. (It is also possible to create the password file without htpasswd or htdigest; see below for alternatives) 
     97 
     98Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. Digest is considered more secure. The examples below use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the command line. 
     99 
     100The general format for using authentication is: 
     101{{{ 
     102 $ tracd -p port --auth="base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm" project_path 
     103}}} 
     104where: 
     105 * '''base_project_dir''': the base directory of the project specified as follows: 
     106   * when serving multiple projects: ''relative'' to the `project_path` 
     107   * when serving only a single project (`-s`): the name of the project directory 
     108 Don't use an absolute path here as this won't work. ''Note:'' This parameter is case-sensitive even for environments on Windows. 
     109 * '''password_file_path''': path to the password file 
     110 * '''realm''': the realm name (can be anything) 
     111 * '''project_path''': path of the project 
     112 
     113 * **`--auth`** in the above means use Digest authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` if you want to use Basic auth.  Although Basic authentication does not require a "realm", the command parser does, so the second comma is required, followed directly by the closing quote for an empty realm name. 
     114 
     115Examples: 
     116 
     117{{{ 
     118 $ tracd -p 8080 \ 
     119   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" /path/to/project1 
     120}}} 
     121 
     122Of course, the password file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project: 
     123{{{ 
     124 $ tracd -p 8080 \ 
     125   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \ 
     126   --auth="project2,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \ 
     127   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2 
     128}}} 
     129 
     130Another way to share the password file is to specify "*" for the project name: 
     131{{{ 
     132 $ tracd -p 8080 \ 
     133   --auth="*,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com" \ 
     134   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2 
     135}}} 
     136 
     137=== Basic Authorization: Using a htpasswd password file === 
     138This section describes how to use `tracd` with Apache .htpasswd files. 
     139 
     140  Note: It is necessary (at least with Python 2.6) to install the fcrypt package in order to 
     141  decode some htpasswd formats.  Trac source code attempt an `import crypt` first, but there 
     142  is no such package for Python 2.6. Only `SHA-1` passwords (since Trac 1.0) work without this module. 
     143 
     144To create a .htpasswd file use Apache's `htpasswd` command (see [#GeneratingPasswordsWithoutApache below] for a method to create these files without using Apache): 
    67145{{{ 
    68146 $ sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username 
     
    72150 $ sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2 
    73151}}} 
    74 then for starting the tracd (on windows skip the "=" after --basic-auth): 
    75 {{{ 
    76  $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth=environmentname,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,/fullpath/environmentname /fullpath/environmentname 
    77 }}} 
    78  
    79 Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. The default is to use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the examples below. (You must still specify a dialogic "realm", which can be an empty string by trailing the BASICAUTH with a comma.) 
    80  
    81   ''Support for Basic authentication was added in version 0.9.'' 
    82  
    83 The general format for using authentication is (on windows skip the "=" after --auth): 
    84  
    85 {{{ 
    86  $ tracd -p port --auth=base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm project_path 
    87 }}} 
    88  
    89 where: 
    90  
    91  * '''base_project_dir''' is the base directory of the project; note: this doesn't refer to the project name, and it is case-sensitive even for windows environments 
    92  * '''password_file_path''' path of the password file 
    93  * '''realm''' realm 
    94  * '''project_path''' path of the project 
    95  
    96 Example (on windows skip the "=" after --auth): 
    97  
    98 {{{ 
    99  $ tracd -p 8080 \ 
    100    --auth=project1,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com /path/to/project1 
    101 }}} 
    102 Of course, the digest file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project: 
    103 {{{ 
    104  $ tracd -p 8080 \ 
    105    --auth=project1,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com \ 
    106    --auth=project2,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com \ 
    107    /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2 
    108 }}} 
    109  
    110 Another way to share the digest file is to specify "*" 
    111 for the project name: 
    112 {{{ 
    113  $ tracd -p 8080 \ 
    114    --auth="*",/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com \ 
    115    /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2 
    116 }}} 
    117 If using the `-s` parameter for serving a Trac environment from the root of a domain, one must use `*` for the project name 
    118  
    119 == How to set up an htdigest password file == 
     152 
     153Then to start `tracd` run something like this: 
     154{{{ 
     155 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="projectdirname,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /fullpath/environmentname 
     156}}} 
     157 
     158For example: 
     159{{{ 
     160 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="testenv,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /srv/tracenv/testenv 
     161}}} 
     162''Note:'' You might need to pass "-m" as a parameter to htpasswd on some platforms (OpenBSD). 
     163 
     164=== Digest authentication: Using a htdigest password file === 
    120165 
    121166If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.0/programs/htdigest.html this page] from the Apache manual to get precise instructions.  You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create.  For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like `users.htdigest` it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the [TracIni trac.ini] file. 
    122167 
    123 Note that you can start tracd without the --auth argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error. 
    124  
    125 == Generating Passwords Without Apache == 
    126  
    127 If you don't have Apache available, you can use this simple Python script to generate your passwords: 
     168Note that you can start tracd without the `--auth` argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error. 
     169 
     170=== Generating Passwords Without Apache === 
     171 
     172Basic Authorization can be accomplished via this [http://aspirine.org/htpasswd_en.html online HTTP Password generator] which also supports `SHA-1`.  Copy the generated password-hash line to the .htpasswd file on your system. Note that Windows Python lacks the "crypt" module that is the default hash type for htpasswd ; Windows Python can grok MD5 password hashes just fine and you should use MD5. 
     173 
     174You can use this simple Python script to generate a '''digest''' password file: 
    128175 
    129176{{{ 
     
    159206}}} 
    160207 
    161 Note: If you use the above script you must use the --auth option to tracd, not --basic-auth, and you must set the realm in the --auth value to 'trac' (without the quotes). Example usage (assuming you saved the script as trac-digest.py): 
     208Note: If you use the above script you must set the realm in the `--auth` argument to '''`trac`'''. Example usage (assuming you saved the script as trac-digest.py): 
    162209 
    163210{{{ 
     
    166213}}} 
    167214 
    168 Note: If you would like to use --basic-auth you need to use htpasswd tool from apache server to generate .htpasswd file. The remaining part is similar but make sure to use empty realm (i.e. coma after path). When using on Windows make sure to use -m option for it (did not tested it on *nix, so not sure if that is the case there).  If you do not have Apache, [trac:source:/tags/trac-0.11b2/contrib/htpasswd.py htpasswd.py] may help.  (Note that it requires a `crypt` or `fcrypt` module; see the source comments for details.) 
    169  
    170 It is possible to use md5sum utility to generate digest-password file using such method: 
    171 {{{ 
    172  $ printf "${user}:trac:${password}" | md5sum - >>user.htdigest 
    173 }}} 
    174 and manually delete " -" from the end and add "${user}:trac:" to the start of line from 'to-file'. 
     215==== Using `md5sum` 
     216It is possible to use `md5sum` utility to generate digest-password file: 
     217{{{ 
     218user= 
     219realm= 
     220password= 
     221path_to_file= 
     222echo ${user}:${realm}:$(printf "${user}:${realm}:${password}" | md5sum - | sed -e 's/\s\+-//') > ${path_to_file} 
     223}}} 
     224 
     225== Reference == 
     226 
     227Here's the online help, as a reminder (`tracd --help`): 
     228{{{ 
     229Usage: tracd [options] [projenv] ... 
     230 
     231Options: 
     232  --version             show program's version number and exit 
     233  -h, --help            show this help message and exit 
     234  -a DIGESTAUTH, --auth=DIGESTAUTH 
     235                        [projectdir],[htdigest_file],[realm] 
     236  --basic-auth=BASICAUTH 
     237                        [projectdir],[htpasswd_file],[realm] 
     238  -p PORT, --port=PORT  the port number to bind to 
     239  -b HOSTNAME, --hostname=HOSTNAME 
     240                        the host name or IP address to bind to 
     241  --protocol=PROTOCOL   http|scgi|ajp|fcgi 
     242  -q, --unquote         unquote PATH_INFO (may be needed when using ajp) 
     243  --http10              use HTTP/1.0 protocol version instead of HTTP/1.1 
     244  --http11              use HTTP/1.1 protocol version (default) 
     245  -e PARENTDIR, --env-parent-dir=PARENTDIR 
     246                        parent directory of the project environments 
     247  --base-path=BASE_PATH 
     248                        the initial portion of the request URL's "path" 
     249  -r, --auto-reload     restart automatically when sources are modified 
     250  -s, --single-env      only serve a single project without the project list 
     251  -d, --daemonize       run in the background as a daemon 
     252  --pidfile=PIDFILE     when daemonizing, file to which to write pid 
     253  --umask=MASK          when daemonizing, file mode creation mask to use, in 
     254                        octal notation (default 022) 
     255  --group=GROUP         the group to run as 
     256  --user=USER           the user to run as 
     257}}} 
     258 
     259Use the -d option so that tracd doesn't hang if you close the terminal window where tracd was started. 
    175260 
    176261== Tips == 
     
    178263=== Serving static content === 
    179264 
    180 If `tracd` is the only webserver used for the project,  
     265If `tracd` is the only web server used for the project,  
    181266it can also be used to distribute static content  
    182267(tarballs, Doxygen documentation, etc.) 
     
    187272Example: given a `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz` file, 
    188273the corresponding relative URL would be `/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz`,  
    189 which in turn can be written using the relative link syntax 
    190 in the Wiki: `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]`  
    191  
    192 Since 0.10, Trac supports a new `htdocs:` TracLinks  
    193 syntax for the above. With this, the example link above can be written simply  
    194 `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz`.  
    195  
    196 === Using apache rewrite rules === 
    197 In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind apache, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the `[trac] use_base_url_for_redirect` to `true` can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of `[trac] base_url` for doing the redirects. 
     274which in turn can be written as `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` (TracLinks syntax) or `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` (relative link syntax).  
     275 
     276 ''Support for `htdocs:` TracLinks syntax was added in version 0.10'' 
     277 
     278=== Using tracd behind a proxy 
     279 
     280In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind Apache or another web server. 
     281 
     282In this situation, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the `[trac] use_base_url_for_redirect` to `true` can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of `[trac] base_url` for doing the redirects. 
     283 
     284If you're using the AJP protocol to connect with `tracd` (which is possible if you have flup installed), then you might experience problems with double quoting. Consider adding the `--unquote` parameter. 
     285 
     286See also [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp], [trac:TracNginxRecipe]. 
     287 
     288=== Authentication for tracd behind a proxy 
     289It is convenient to provide central external authentication to your tracd instances, instead of using {{{--basic-auth}}}. There is some discussion about this in #9206. 
     290 
     291Below is example configuration based on Apache 2.2, mod_proxy, mod_authnz_ldap. 
     292 
     293First we bring tracd into Apache's location namespace. 
     294 
     295{{{ 
     296<Location /project/proxified> 
     297        Require ldap-group cn=somegroup, ou=Groups,dc=domain.com 
     298        Require ldap-user somespecificusertoo 
     299        ProxyPass http://localhost:8101/project/proxified/ 
     300        # Turns out we don't really need complicated RewriteRules here at all 
     301        RequestHeader set REMOTE_USER %{REMOTE_USER}s 
     302</Location> 
     303}}} 
     304 
     305Then we need a single file plugin to recognize HTTP_REMOTE_USER header as valid authentication source. HTTP headers like '''HTTP_FOO_BAR''' will get converted to '''Foo-Bar''' during processing. Name it something like '''remote-user-auth.py''' and drop it into '''proxified/plugins''' directory: 
     306{{{ 
     307#!python 
     308from trac.core import * 
     309from trac.config import BoolOption 
     310from trac.web.api import IAuthenticator 
     311 
     312class MyRemoteUserAuthenticator(Component): 
     313 
     314    implements(IAuthenticator) 
     315 
     316    obey_remote_user_header = BoolOption('trac', 'obey_remote_user_header', 'false',  
     317               """Whether the 'Remote-User:' HTTP header is to be trusted for user logins  
     318                (''since ??.??').""")  
     319 
     320    def authenticate(self, req): 
     321        if self.obey_remote_user_header and req.get_header('Remote-User'):  
     322            return req.get_header('Remote-User')  
     323        return None 
     324 
     325}}} 
     326 
     327Add this new parameter to your TracIni: 
     328{{{ 
     329... 
     330[trac] 
     331... 
     332obey_remote_user_header = true 
     333... 
     334}}} 
     335 
     336Run tracd: 
     337{{{ 
     338tracd -p 8101 -r -s proxified --base-path=/project/proxified 
     339}}} 
     340 
     341Note that if you want to install this plugin for all projects, you have to put it in your [TracPlugins#Plugindiscovery global plugins_dir] and enable it in your global trac.ini. 
     342 
     343Global config (e.g. `/srv/trac/conf/trac.ini`): 
     344{{{ 
     345[components] 
     346remote-user-auth.* = enabled 
     347[inherit] 
     348plugins_dir = /srv/trac/plugins 
     349[trac] 
     350obey_remote_user_header = true 
     351}}} 
     352 
     353Environment config (e.g. `/srv/trac/envs/myenv`): 
     354{{{ 
     355[inherit] 
     356file = /srv/trac/conf/trac.ini 
     357}}} 
    198358 
    199359=== Serving a different base path than / === 
     
    204364 
    205365---- 
    206 See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide, [trac:TracOnWindowsStandalone?version=13#RunningTracdasservice Running tracd.exe as a Windows service] 
     366See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide, [trac:TracOnWindowsStandalone#RunningTracdasservice Running tracd.exe as a Windows service]